The Institute studies the Jewish People as a complex system using the tools that were developed in physics. This complex system is formed by people and their interactions. For revealing the laws of this system we need a tractable model. The Institute performs research in physics which is ultimately aimed at the development of different aspects of the required model. From general viewpoint, the system of the Jewish People is a finite group of people (“agents”) who exchange information. The information is considered in the active sense, as a cause of human actions. It is assumed that there is a finite number of information types. These form different connections of humans building the web structure of the Jewish people. Our work on complex systems is provided in the papers below.

In this work we consider basic chaotic system – collection of colliding billiard balls. If we label the balls then we can speak of individual sequences of collisions of each ball. For instance, ball number three collided with ball number two fifteen times during one hour but with number five thirty nine times during the same time interval. In contrast, the ball number five, which collided thirty nine times with ball number three collided 44 times with ball number one. Observing collisions in the next hour we would find completely different numbers of collisions. Is there any law about the collision numbers? Before our work these would be considered completely random. We introduced laws of collision numbers, both deterministic and statistical.

Vidgop, A.J. and Fouxon, I., 2011. Evolution of collision numbers for a chaotic gas dynamics. Physical Review E, 84(5), p.055202.

available at:

https://arxiv.org/pdf/1104.3668.pdf

In this work we continue the work on collision numbers of chaotically colliding billiard balls. We demonstrate that despite that the balls are identical they behave differently in terms of their collision patterns. The difference is due to initial conditions. Over very long time intervals, the ball consistently collides more with certain balls and less with others. This looks as preferences in collisions of the ball, though the ball does not really “prefer” another ball. Rather the structure of chaos makes the ball to collide more with the “preferred” ball. In the limit of long times the preferences necessarily change but these times can readily exceed the time of the experiment making preferences true notion for practical purposes.

Vidgop, A.J. and Fouxon, I., 2014. Emergence of distinguishability of patterns of collisions of particles in a non-equilibrium chaotic system. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 411, pp.113-117.

available at:

https://arxiv.org/pdf/1202.4334.pdf

In this work we study complex motions of particles where the particles form flows and the flows themselves form grander correlated system of turbulence. The basic prototype of this system is the fluid that performs turbulent motion. The extreme chaoticity of the flow makes it sensitive to small changes of the flow in small regions of space. The flow represents one coherent system whose laws are largely unknown. We propose the view of turbulence as many interacting objects whose complex correlations form turbulent flow.

Vidgop, A.J. and Fouxon, I., 2010. Turbulence – “motion of multitude”: a multi-agent spin model for complex flows, Adv. Appl. Fl. Mech. 7, p. 163.

available at:

https://arxiv.org/pdf/0910.4923.pdf

This work is a short review of our understanding of what objective reality is in the light of modern physics. The article first elucidates the fact that there is a disagreement in the community of physicists upon what the objective reality is and whether it exists at all.

The controversy holds for more than 80 years already, since the discovery of the quantum mechanics. The latter made it clear that if the objective reality exists at all, then it is very unusual from the viewpoint of the everyday thinking. Some of the proposed pictures of the objective reality, starting from chronologically the first one and ending with the last are described.

Submitted to New Scientist

We study the possibility that further advancement in the understanding of the order of chaos may demand a certain reconsideration of the approach to the classical mechanics. For this we suggest to consider the viewpoint that spatio-temporal relations between objects are emergent and that they are but a result of complex interactions of objects.

Such an approach is a natural continuation of the revision of the notions of space and time started by the general theory of relativity. It leads to a possible extension of the structure of the classical mechanics. Namely, the result of the objects interactions can be wider than the spatio-temporal relations. In this case interactions form a generalized space (”Field-Space”) wider than its spatio-temporal section (while the known interactions are embedded within that section). The study of such hypothesis demands constructing a theory, not relying on space and time as primitive notions. As primary elements of such a theory we consider objects and purely informational connections between them, not expressed in spatiotemporal terms. Following the logic of this theory, the world constitutes a complex information web. The Web is in the state of a constant flux (of a more general category than the one of the quantum fields) – an incessant change of connections, the complex order of which comprises the order of chaos. Reminding the space build-up from the Regge skeleton, the Web builds a unified Field-Space of pure information, manifested in space as energy distribution. We describe the emergence of spatiotemporal laws from the viewpoint of purely informational physics. The suggested construction of physics on the purely informational basis is a candidate for the theory of quantum gravity.

Submitted to Axiomathes

We propose a new paradigm for emergence of macroscopic flows. The latter are considered as a collective phenomenon created by many agents that exchange abstract information.

The information exchange causes agents to change their relative positions which results in a flow. This paradigm, aimed at the study of the nature of turbulence, appeals to the original meaning of the word: ”turbulence” siginifies ”disordered motions of crowds”. We give a preliminary discussion on a model of multi-agent dynamics that realizes the paradigm. This dynamics is reminiscent of spin glasses and neural networks. The model is relational, i. e. it assumes no spatio-temporal background and may serve as a basis for an approach to quantum gravity via spin models.

Published in Advances and Applications in Fluid Mechanics (Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 163 – 170, April 2010)